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加拿大 —— 陈金华

2016-12-6 15:13    |  来源: 中国佛教协会

摘要: 作为中国佛教诸宗派的源泉,祖庭标志着中国佛教相对于印度佛教的独立性的建立。印度对周遭亚洲国家所具有的优越感与压迫感,似乎也不是完成缘于其作为佛法发源地的殊胜地位。政治丶文化丶经济丶乃至军事的优越,也是 ...
 
 


陈金华

 
 
       作为中国佛教诸宗派的源泉,祖庭标志着中国佛教相对于印度佛教的独立性的建立。印度对周遭亚洲国家所具有的优越感与压迫感,似乎也不是完成缘于其作为佛法发源地的殊胜地位。政治丶文化丶经济丶乃至军事的优越,也是重要原因。但是,到了七丶八世纪,这种中印力量对比发生了根本性的变化。唐王朝在经济总量与人均所得上均开始凌驾于印度,成为世界第一强国。唐王朝的成就,主要归功於其典章制度的高效能化,精神文化的多元化,以及商贸的国际化。而在後二者,佛教都产生了非常关键的作用。唐朝的兴盛,召唤着一个新的世界秩序。佛教积极回应了这种召唤。成群结队的僧人从印度半岛与中亚奔赴唐中国,络绎不绝於途。中国期待着被塑造成新的世界中心,而印度佛教徒也乐於将佛教中心从印度转移到中国,这是一个愉快的合作。
 
  As the fountainheads of various Chinese Buddhist traditions, the formation of Chinese patriarch temples marked the foundation of the Chinese Buddhism’s independence in contrast to Indian Buddhism. The pressure India imposed on neighboring countries was not exclusively generated by its status as the birthplace of the Buddha. The political, cultural, economic and military advantage Indian maintained over other Asian countries also contributed to its preeminent status. The situation changed considerably in the seventh and eighth centuries. During this period, Tang China began to surpass India both in terms of aggregate economic output and GDP per capita, becoming the most powerful country in the world. Scholars ascribe the success of Tang China to the high efficiency of her political institutions, the multiplication of her cultures and the globalization of her commercial networks. Buddhism appears to have played a key role in the latter two developments. The emergence of Tang China as key political, cultural, and commercial center created a new world order. The arrival of south and central Asian Buddhist clerics in Tang China reflected this reshuffling of power. These south and central Buddhist missionaries enhanced the sense that Tang China constituted the new world center. This was a pleasant collaboration between Chinese monastics and their South and Central Asian counterparts.
 
  隋唐时期,随着这种佛教世界新秩序的建立,祖庭在教内与教外都日益发挥着无可替代的作用。本文试图通过对隋唐长安两座同名为“禅定寺”的重要的禅宗祖庭的研究,来揭示二者在同名背後所隐含的巨大的宗教与非宗教功能。
 
  Following the establishment of the new order in the religious world during the Sui-Tang period,  patriarch temples started to played increasingly important roles both within the monastic world and beyond. By studying two Sui-Tang Chan patriarchal temples both named “Chanding” (meditation), this article is aimed at the immense roles, both religious and non-religious, played by these two homonymous temples.
 
  两座禅定寺坐落于长安城相邻的两个坊,分别由隋文帝(581-604年在位)及其子炀帝(604-618年在位)所建,前後相距三年依次建成。正如寺院名称所示,这是两个修习禅法的场所。但更为有趣的是,它们亦因类似或同样的政治丶宗教目的而建。两禅定寺都是两位布施者为其至亲——於文帝是其皇妻,於炀帝为其父——祈祷冥福而建。虽然两寺相似之处颇多,且在隋唐时期所扮演的角色颇为吃重,中国佛教研究者对其注意颇为有限。本文试图概述两寺在隋代的建造缘起和在唐代的发展,以补不足。
 
  The monasteries were, for example, established by successive Sui period emperors: Sui founder Wendi 隋文帝 (r. 581-604) and his son Yangdi 隋炀帝 (r. 604-618). They stood side by side in two adjacent wards (fang 坊) of Chang’an. The structures were established a mere three years apart. As their names (chanding禅定 [meditation]) suggest, the twin monasteries were sites of meditation practice. Perhaps most interestingly, they were built for very similar or even identical political and religious purposes. Both Chanding Monasteries, as I will discuss here, were constructed for the posthumous benefit of their sponsors’ primary relatives, Wendi’s wife and Yangdi’s father.
 
  通过考察东丶西禅定寺在隋唐时期所扮演的多重角色,本文强调以多元视角研究寺院,将那些易被宗教史学者所忽视的非宗教因素纳入研究的视域。寺院通常被理解为神圣与尘俗的界限:在很多背景下它们被视作远离世俗染污的所在,举办宗教活动的道场。然而,大量的证据表明,虽意在超绝,东亚(以及世界上其他地方)的宗教场所难免或多或少地与俗世互动,并由此催生神圣与世俗之间多种纽带的形成。正如禅定寺的例子所表明的那样,学者们需要更多地关注寺院在建构东亚政治社会丶经济商业丶文化教育丶甚至外交网络中所扮演的角色。
 
  By examining various roles played by the twin Chanding Monasteries under the Sui and Tang dynasties, this article underscores the necessity of studying religious temples and shrines from multiple perspectives, taking into account the plethora of non-religious factors that scholars of the religious history are wont to ignore or neglect. Oftentimes understood as boundary markers dividing the secular/mundane world from its sacred/pure counterpart, religious temples and shrines have in many contexts been celebrated as sites free from the polluting influences of everyday life and “arenas for practice” (daochang 道场) within which religious activities could be executed. Yet ample evidence suggests that, despite claims to be other-worldly, places of religious practice in East Asia (and around the world) remain entangled to a greater or lesser extent in the affairs of the ordinary world, facilitating the formation of bonds of all types. As the case of the Chanding Monasteries illustrates, scholars need to attend more closely to the roles temples have played in building social, political, economic-commercial, educational or even diplomatic and strategic ties and networks in East Asia.
 
 
 
 
 

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